
Circuit lab physics answers 5. The positive terminal gains negative charge and eventually becomes neutral. 5 T, with 2 significant digits, so the answer is rounded to 2 significant digits. However, for voltage and resistance when one increases so does the other. And We Can See The Relationship Of The Resistances, Current And Voltage In Circuit Which Related To Ohm’s Law. ) The light bulb may be connected to the circuit using a combination of jumper wires, alligator clips and banana wires. Circuit Lab programs give kids the opportunity to create devices by blending technical concepts with handson experimentation in a creative environment. This law states that the current in a circuit is directly proportional to the potential SeriesParallel Circuits Lab. Once the charges even out, there is no longer a potential difference between them, and the flow of electrons (current) stops. It was previously an event in 2013, 2014, and 2019, when it was called Shock Value in Division B. FEJZO's Physics. Kaitlyn Greiner Formal Lab Report: Title of Experiment: Simple dc Circuits Date Performed: July 16th, 2014 Lab Partners: Erin Phlegar and Stephen Few Physics 102L, Section: 02 Professor Teklu Abstract: In this lab, my objective was to understand the relationships between resistance, potential difference, and current in a simple circuit. com is the place to go to get the answers you need and to ask the questions you want Search & Filtering. Measuring Current through a circuit NOTE: It is extremely easy to destroy a meter when trying to measure current! Follow these instructions carefully, and have the instructor check your setup before you apply power! To measure current flow through a circuit: 1. Our service is the solution provider for your physics questions. To make the circuit charge faster should have a lower value of c since time constant = RC EDIT:It's a charging RC Circuit, not discharging In this lab we will study an RLC circuit with an AC source to create a resonant system. Qualitative investigation of series and parallel circuits. org  a site powered by IEEE with a page for Circuit Lab Resources 2019 Practice Power Points from Physics National Event Supervisors by topic/week: Phet Circuit Construction Kit Dc Answers Names of Lab Partners: Go to the PHeT web site and use the Circuit Construction Kit simulation (CCK). The assignment is a little bit more challenging than last time, so don't put it off until the last minute. Equipment 1 function generator (PC Scope software) 1 digital multimeter and leads 1 decade resistance box 1 capacitor (nominally 0. 7 connecting wires. circuits, magnetic fields in free space, Lorentz force, induction, Maxwell’s equations and their applications, electromagnetic waves, AC circuits, magnetic and electric fields in matter) 3. 6. 1 Physics 1. 2 on the right. 1. We use the latest technologies including Arduino and Raspberry Pi to design smarter flashlights, race cars, musical instruments, games, and more. ▶ Three to four #14 (round) bulbs and three to four #48 (long) bulbs, plus corresponding bulb holders [ note: #14 bulbs have a limit of 2. Note that the two resistors are not identical in this parallel circuit. Sign up to view the full version. (Figure 13. RLC Series and Parallel Circuits Lab. This resource is part of a large collection of simulations freely available from the Physics Education Technology (PhET) group at the University of Colorado. ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. (5 points) 2. • The report begins with a short statement of what is being measured, and why. Virusfree and 100% clean download. Then, calculate the total current. Release the switch just before the graph is completed. consider the following situation and answer the questions with your In this lab, we will investigate the behavior of direct current (DC) electrical circuits. Your TA will award the mill when he or she checks your notes at the end of the lab. 12. 16. An oscilloscope is an invaluable tool for testing electronic circuits by measuring voltages over time, and Figure 5 shows the schematic for monitoring an RC circuit with an oscilloscope. 2. The Light Bulb Lab is an introduction to electrical circuits. Physics Lab Steps. Consider an RC series circuit with e=24volts, R=10, and C=15. Total power in a parallel circuit is the sum of the power consumed on the individual branches. Official Science Olympiad Circuit Lab Kit from Ward's Science; 2019 Practice Videos from Physics National Event Supervisors on YouTube's Science Olympiad TV page  look under Events TryEngineering. 28. To see Ohm’s law in action for resistors 3. (t) on the capacitor and the current I(t) in the circuit. doc multimeter while using this port, the fuse will blow and the fuse will need to be replaced. W. If a bulb connected directly to a 6 V battery glows brightly when 1 A of current passes Answer: FALSE The electric potential difference is the same in each branch of a parallel circuit. Always use a power switch to remove power when building circuits. 43. The latter portion simplifies the law for beginners by delineating the absolute basic concepts for beginners. A length of wire carrying a current of 2. Be sure that all connections are securely fastened. Connect the circuit as shown in Figure 1 above with the 10 μF capacitor and the 100 kΩ resistor. Parallel Circuits lab Laboratory Experiment #2, The Series Circuit Patrick Hoppe, 02/17/02 The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the relationship between voltage, resistance, and current as described by Ohm’s law. Get circuits phet lab answer key PDF file for free from our online library PDF File: circuits phet lab answer key. (a) An RL circuit with a switch to turn current on and off. – Always include units on measurements! – Check your measured results while in the lab to make sure they make sense. 0 Ω in series. Traditionally, electric charge is introduced as the primary electrical quantity, measured in coulombs in the SI system of units. Check it against your estimate from part b. Physics Test: Current Electricity and Circuits. Which globes would light when the following occurs: i. D. II. 15. (5) applied to the left side loop and the last equation is the voltage law applied to the right side loop of the circuit shown in Figure 11. R AP Physics Lab – Capacitors and RC Circuits. Consider the circuit below, which shows four identical lamps A, B, C and D in a circuit, controlled by switches S 1, S 2 and S 3. 8. Charging and discharging behavior of capacitors will be explored using various values for voltage, resistance, and capacitance. ampere (A) Amount of water flowing Resistance A measure of how difficult it is 4. . 1A current and is perpendicular to a magnetic field. Read the following chapters from the text (Giancoli): 1. 1) In this experiment, the current ﬂowing through a resistor will be measured as the voltage across the resistor is varied. Use two meters in your circuit, they will help to measure the heat rate. Show all work for full credit. (Figure 14. INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC CIRCUITS LAB (ECE235 LAB) Objectives: 1 To introduce the students to the basic electrical equipments in the lab. DC circuit  DC Circuits Electric Power PHY 114 Lab Report The total amount of charge, which flows through the battery per unit time, is, by definition, equal to the current flowing through the battery. Materials: 1 1. Experiment 5  Electrical Circuits Click here for Experiment 5  Electric Circuits ‹ Experiment 4  Van de Graaff up Experiment 6  The ChargetoMass Ratio of the Electron › Phet Circuit Construction Kit Dc Answers Names of Lab Partners: Go to the PHeT web site and use the Circuit Construction Kit simulation (CCK). This experiment is designed to investigate the relationship between current and potential in simple series and parallel resistor circuits using ideas of conservation of energy and conservation of charge. To explore the time dependent behavior of RC and RL Circuits PRELAB READING INTRODUCTION Use the voltmeter to measure the voltage across the battery and each resistor. docx Answer: A super node exists when an ideal voltage source appears between any two nodes of an electric circuit. Place your answers in the tables provided. Series equivalent resistance = 146. docx Author: Gary Morris Created Date: 3/23/2009 9:41:11 AM Lab report You must hand in a typed lab report for every lab you perform. The study of electric circuits, current flow, and its measurement is the subject of this laboratory exercise. Use the multimeter to measure the resistances of the resistor, R (labeled as 10 Ω), and the inductor coil, R L . The labs provided below can be completed with or without additional equipment (light bulbs, batteries, wires, multimeters). The Data section should include a schematic of a threeresistor parallel circuit. Observe what happens to the other bulb and the ammeter reading and record your observations. Explain your answer. Step 7: Connect the voltmeter in parallel around each of the other two bulbs, and note down the reading on the voltmeter. Answer the questions at the end of this writeup and be prepared to turn them in at the beginning The two major concepts of circuits are current and voltage. If 4 amps Department of Physics In this lab we will investigate three types of circuits: those with only . Before doing so, note the orientation and layout of the board. Note, currents are measured indirectly by measuring the voltage across an appropriate resistor and applying Ohm s Law. 53 VDC power supply. The “+” terminal of the voltmeter should be connected to the “+” terminal of the Power Supply hence forth referred to as (PS) (usually the red outlet) and the “” terminal of the voltmeter to the “” terminal of the PS (usually the COM or black outlet) of the DMM. As shown in the figure below, the input voltage from the squarewave generator is monitored by channel one (CH 1) and the voltage across the capacitor is monitored by channel two (CH 2). DC Circuit Builder is an open simulation that is flexible enough to run a variety of basic laboratory experiments. Physics Answers. The DC analysis of a series resistance circuit should support Ohm’s Law and the formula for total resistance in a series circuit. volt (V) Water pressure Current A measure of the flow of charge in a circuit. entirely true, but it is an approximation that will lead you to the correct answer. You misread the ammeter (wrong multiplier). 8 alligator clips. PHYSICS 111 LABORATORY Experiment #3. General Notes About 2017 AP Physics Scoring Guidelines. Theory In the previous experiment, you constructed 4 circuits, each circuit built with one resistive element. The leastprecise value is 4. ” An example is a piece of wire joining two or more resistors. 2. In position 2, the battery is removed and the current eventually stops because of energy loss in the resistor. a. We measured the divisions from the top peak to the bottom peak of the cycle and divided it by 2 to find the amplitude. Answers will vary. on your answer sheet. Determine if this is an example of a series circuit or a parallel circuit. your answer is to go back and label the voltage at each point in the circuit. Introduction: The voltage through an RLC series circuit will be measured as a function of frequency for a fixed applied voltage. Justify the number of significant digits in your answer. Chiu 1 Lab 2: Rectifiers Objectives The objective of this lab is for you to become familiar with the functionality of a diode in circuits. What was the total voltage across both voltage sources connected together for the first circuit? Refer to the lab experiment to get answer Set up each circuit and then measure the current and volage across each resistor. Electric circuits are the basis of every electric device, from electric lights to microwave ovens to computers. Chapter 1: DC circuit basics  7  Lab 1: Voltage, Current, Resistance and Power Your notebooks must be complete, understandable, and address all activities, design exercises, observations, and questions noted in the laboratory’s procedures. To study potential differences in series and parallel circuits. This is the power dissipated by each resistor. While the bulbs are still lit, carefully disconnect one of the bulbs from the circuit. Hand in your answers as you enter the general physics lab. Correct answers: Circuit 3 runs out first, circuit 2 runs out last. In this portion of the lab, we will be studying circuits containing resistors in series and in parallel. Graph current as a function of location on the circuit. A 15 A circuit operating at 120 V consumes 1,800 W of total power. Take another piece of wire and a switch. Circuits Circuit Analysis Basc your answers to questions 37 through 39 on the dia Base Vour answers to questions 42 through 44 on thc in gram below, which represents an electrical circuit consist formation and diagram below. All Worksheets with Keys: Friday, Capacitor Lab; 9 Electric Circuits. As you fill in the following R  I  V  P chart for this simple parallel circuit remember that resistors in parallel experience the same voltage drop and that the We learn about the properties of series circuits. Start studying Physics Test: Current Electricity and Circuits. . These arrangements are called series and parallel circuits. After you have completed the above experiment by using additional wires, bulbs, and batteries. Always check circuits before turning on power. Students often face hardtosolve and mindnumbing physics problems, that cause a lot of distress into the studying process. Discuss basic electricity relationships in series and parallel circuits. RLC circuits. AC CIRCUIT EXPERIMENT This lab deals with circuits involving resistors, capacitors and inductors in which the currents and voltages vary sinusoidally in time. What was the total voltage across both voltage sources connected together for the first circuit? Refer to the lab experiment to get answer The City University of New York COLLEGE OF STATEN ISLAND. Results for charging and discharging, with marked values R = 1 MΩ and C = 100 µF, are 1. Explain why the bulb is on when the switch is open, and off when the switch is closed. Launch CircuitLab or watch a quick demo video → Physics 1 Lab: Series and Parallel Circuits 4. Preparation for the experiment: Before conducting the experiment, the student is required to have read the experiment background and procedure from the experiment manual and studied the related theory. 116). Part 1 of this lab introduces you to the equipment you will be using throughout the 111a lab and most of the labs in Physics 111b, particularly the digital multimeter (DMM), breadboard, power supplies, oscilloscope, and the signal generator. You are given a resistor, an inductor and a capacitor with nominal values of R = 12 k , L = 0. Answer pages for each Mini Lab and Physics Lab Worksheet are included in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 3 AC Circuit Analysis. do you have for your answer? 4. •The procedure and results are then briefly described for each major part of the exercise. Everything you need for experimenting with batteries and circuits! We offer batteries, light bulbs, buzzers, wire, alligator clip leads, switches, and experiment kits so you can do a complete battery and circuit lab for your homeschool or science fair project. Provide reasoning to explain the measurements and relationships in circuits. 531550) and/or from notes in class. B. Thornton Supported by National Science Foundation and the U. Basic physics concepts, such as acceleration, gravity, and Hooke’s Law are covered. Physics Lab VIII. Physics/DC Circuits Question? You need to modify a simple charging RC circuit (power supply, resistor, and capacitor in series) to maintain the same maximum current but lower the the time constant and make it charge faster. Lecture Notes. Mandalfrom Kolkata(India) You have found the perfect channel for youIn this channel you will get many Studying the physics behind these discoveries will occupy most of this course. (ECE235 LAB) GUIDE LINES FOR THE EXPERIMENTS AND REPORT PREPARATION 1. 6 + 1132 + 3950 = 5,228. Find the total resistance of the circuit. A "parallel" circuit has two or more paths for the electricity. We will also learn how to use LabView – a Worksheet: Circuits & Ohm’s Law CHAPTER 35: SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS Directions: Answer the following questions based on reading from Chapter 23 (pgs. You suggest that you try a simple circuit with a capacitor, originally uncharged, connected to a battery through a switch. Background When establishing an electric potential difference of V between the two terminals of a of laboratory activities that develop skills in observation, use of scientific tools and techniques, data collection and analysis, and mathematical applications. Lab: Simple Circuits AP Physics Background The flow of charges through a circuit is best illustrated by actually constructing such circuits, and analyzing them using concepts covered in class. The crux of the analysis of an RLC circuit is the frequency dependence of X L and X C, and the effect they have on the phase of voltage versus current (established in the preceding section). Provide reasoning to explain the measurements in circuits. S. Edition 201 8 Basic Circuits Name _____ Objectives: Students will be able to…. This gives you the first set of operatingpoint data for the diode [0. Foudil Latioui January 23, 2012 C:\Users\patridm\Documents\Labs\Breadboards, Meters, and Ohms Law Lab\Breadboards, Meters and Ohm's Law Lab rev4. State Ohm’s Law, defining every term in the equation. RC and LRC Circuits: Worksheet  RC Board Notes UTSA Department of Physics and Astronomy. We will test the theoretical prediction for the capacitance of a capacitor and how capacitance depends upon plate separation distance. Remember to use your notebook as a laboratory journal and record your data, EE/CE 3111 Electronic Circuits Laboratory Spring 2015 Professor Y. Laws, D. If a battery is being used, remove two cells from the battery. If a bulb connected directly to a 6 V battery glows brightly when 1 A of current passes Physics 124 Lab 5 Spring 2012 53 (or even wires, using the screw connection) on these jacks, it is generally easier to make connections to the power supply voltages from the four rows of connections just above the connection panel. 1 Electrical Circuit Definitions Any section of a circuit that is at constant voltage is called a “node. In a series circuit the resistors are connected . A. DC Circuit Kit 10dElectrostatics FR practice problemsANSWERS. Experiment 10 ~ RLC Series circuit Resonance in an RLC Series Circuit Objective: To experimentally determine the resonance frequency in a series RLC circuit and compare this to the expected resonance value. 0. Lab 7  Introduction to Inductors and LR Circuits L075 University of Virginia Physics Department Modified from P. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. must be calibrated at the beginning of any experiment in which it is used. Worksheets 14 (Electricity and Magnetism) and all Imaging Worksheets due at the beginning of class. Chapter 25, sections 1, 2, 3, 5 2. There is only one device connected to the power source. To analyze this type of circuit, it should first be simplified (reduced to an equivalent resistor, Req). Compare this value with the power delivered by the power supply by recording the voltage and current on the power supply. The purpose of this lab is to practice constructing electric circuits and to observe characteristics of series and parallel circuits. Parallel and series circuit electricity worksheet with answers will help learners gain a better understanding of the concept and applications of series and parallel connections in electricity. 2 Electric Circuits. Lab 3  Ohm’s Law & Kirchhoff's Circuit Rules 47 Modified from P. Measure the voltage across the battery exactly as you did in Part 2. Check your answers to the questions with another person from a different group. One auxiliary, but very important, objective of this experiment is to give you some initial experience using the lab electronic equipment: signal generator, oscilloscope, cabling, and, of course, the analog trainer/breadboard you use to construct your circuits. V. Physics Lab Downloads: Worksheets and Board Notes. 15mA). In the set of experiments, the theoretical expressions used to calculate the total resistance in a combination of resistors will be tested experimentally. Answer the questions 16. Figure 3 3. Each division of 1 centimeter represented 1 volt. Click on the move meter button to switch your meters to another resistor. Layout: /2. The following page contains some helpful formulas that you may use throughout the test. Submit a question about this topic. . CircuitLab Home; Example Circuits; Blog; Forums; About Us; Frequently Asked Questions; Documentation; Electronics Q&A; Electronics Textbook Series Circuit Lab. CircuitLab is an inbrowser schematic capture and circuit simulation software tool to help you rapidly design and analyze analog and digital electronics systems. Place a 100Ω resistor in the pair of springs nearest to the banana jacks at the lower right corner on the AC/DC Electronics Lab. Then calculate the power consumed in each resistor. The derivative of a linear function is a constant, and in each of these three cases that constant equals the resistor resistance in ohms. Place the red (positive) lead in the + jack. (4), the second is the voltage law, eq. 3 light bulbs & socket board. R AP PHYSICS 1 INVESTIGATIONS. I. Connect a voltmeter and current meter as shown below (Figure 3) so that the voltage of the source and the current through the circuit can be measured. Do not Build a circuit with the battery you tested in Part 2, a bulb, a bulb holder, and wires. Theory: An RLC circuit (aka resonant circuit or tuned circuit) is an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor of resistance R, a coil of inductance L, a capacitor of capacitance C, and a voltage source V arranged in series or parallel. The current is blocked and cannot flow. Physics 2 AC Circuits Lab report  Pesce1 AC Circuit We measured the amplitude of the cycle represented on the oscilloscope. You can then use Ohm’s law to determine the equivalent resistance of the two resistors. To study current flow in series and parallel circuits. 10 19 105 10 14; the answer will be about 20 10 14,or 2 10 13. ” PhET Circuit construction kit lab! Answer Key Physics: Principles and Problems Supplemental Problems Answer Key 185 4. Objectives. Physics 215  Experiment 11 Series and Parallel Circuits. Print this page, record your answers on it, and show it to your lab TF at the start of your lab session. Each person in the group should printout the Questions section and answer them individually. Department of Physics & Astronomy . Phys 102 formal simple dc circuits lab report 1. 6, 1132, 3950 ohms. Approximation: For the circuit shown in Fig. In the series circuit by looking at table 2 under appendix A, current is the same at every resistor which shows that it follows the formula for current in series circuit as current at each point is equal. The field Electricity & Circuits include following animated simulation projects. Physics 6B Lab jExperiment 5 the circuit diagram in your notes. Part two: parallel circuit. In addition, the expected distribution of the voltage and current to each resistor in a network will also be tested. Add the switch to your circuit and experiment to see how the switch works to open and close the circuit. Remember to use your notebook as a laboratory journal and record your data, Physics; Circuit Lab  Div C Circuit Lab  Div C. ) The digital multimeter (DMM) is used for reading resistance values. Sources of Ohms law lab sources of error? what factors can change the value of resistors as the experiment is being performed? also what are the additional sources if resistance in the circuit other than the resistor themselves and whether this would effect the results of this experiment? Answers. Students can analyze the collected data by creating graphs of the data and use the graphs in the conclusion tool. Figure 7 The AC/DC Electronics Lab Circuit Board 3. Make sure that you record your answers to question 3 in your. Department of Education (FIPSE), 19932000 University of Virginia Physics Department PHYS 241W, Fall 2004 Prediction 14: If bulbs A and B are identical, predict how the Undergraduate Physics Labs Download the lab writeup, and be sure to read it in preparation before coming to the lab. Lab Voltage and Current Measurement 01 and Ohm’s Law in SeriesParallel dc Circuits BTE2122 “Electrical Fundamentals and Circuit Analysis I” Laboratory Lab Objectives By the end of this lab, students should be able to: 1. Calculate the current through the battery. For this lab you will be looking at voltage and current in a series circuit. The steadystate behavior of circuits energized by sinusoidal sources is an important area of study for several reasons. Connect the Voltage Probe to Channel 1 of the computer interface. The pathway is complete with no gaps and current can flow. The ﬁrst type of circuit you will construct is a series Lab circuit board (see locations D and E, at the lower right in Figure 7 below). 27. The springs are connected by conductors to the jacks. 1. Electrical Circuits Lab Answer Sheet. Explain on your answer sheet. We'll follow the circuit. Not everyone can cope with the hardships physics problems cause, and many end up with a bunch of physics questions that need to be solved. CIRCUIT 7: OHM’S LAW Choose one of the three resistors. Analysis: Answer the following questions in your lab book, then upload photos of your answers to Edmodo. DO NOT DISCONNECT THE CIRCUIT. Learning how circuits work will help you understand how countless electric devices function. 5V battery Mr. the completed report file directly to a lab TA or to physics@andrews. The circuit diagram of a series RLC circuit is shown in Fig. Resistive elements are not connected in series or parallel. Best Answer: Parallel equivalent resistance 1/R = (1/r1 + 1'r2 + 1/r3) = 125. C. Resistor Circuits. org  a site powered by IEEE with a page for Circuit Lab Resources 2019 Practice Power Points from Physics National Event Supervisors by topic/week: The circuits for charging and discharging the capacitor were set up as specified in the lab manual. Elementary number of significant figures in your answer . Procedure. g. the answer. The electric circuits in this lab are built with batteries, light bulbs, switches, and wires. Object: To learn how to operate a Wheatstone Bridge and to verify the formulas for the combination of resistances. Remember that you set your pace, in your OpenLearning. This article presents the complete Ohm’s law Lab report and various questions regarding the lab. Objectives To construct and analyze the behavior of four circuits: a simple switch circuit, a simple rheostat (variable Chapter 1: DC circuit basics  7  Lab 1: Voltage, Current, Resistance and Power Your notebooks must be complete, understandable, and address all activities, design exercises, observations, and questions noted in the laboratory’s procedures. P = VI = (120 V)(15 A) = 1,800 W. c. Read through the entire lab, paying particular attention to the introduction and equipment list. Historically, the fields which have been tested in this event are DC circuit concepts and DC circuit analysis (both theory and practice). Tes Global Ltd is registered in England (Company No 02017289) with its registered office at 26 Red Lion Square London WC1R 4HQ. RLC Series Circuit Saddleback College Physics Department INSTRUCTOR’S NOTE: This lab is written to take ~3 hours and will provide students with a great deal of practice analyzing driven A. You and your friend are trying to determine if you can use a capacitor to limit the current from a battery in the case of short circuits. Then press on the switch to complete the circuit. A direct current (DC) electrical circuit consists of a source of DC electricity with a conducting wire going from one of the source terminals to a set of electrical devices and then back to the other terminal, in a complete circuit. TRUE or FALSE: If resistors are connected in parallel, then the current will be the same through each resistor. Lab manual for Physics II  20484 Department of Physics & Astronomy Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX Spring 2013 Lab report 2. Click on the button and wait a second or two. You can also NOTE: handheld calculators give answers that generally have a false . Circuit 1 R1 R2 R3 Vtotal R I V R1 3 Ω 1 3 Vtotal = 9 v R2 3 Ω 1 3 Itotal = 1 R3 3 Ω 1 3 Rtotal = 9 Circuit 2 Vtotal R1 R2 R3 R I V R1 12 Ω 1/2 6 Vtotal = 6 v EE/CE 3111 Electronic Circuits Laboratory Spring 2015 Professor Y. To complete the lab you will be given the following equipment: 1. The usual way to solve this is to write KCL equations for both nodes and simply add them together into one equation ignoring the voltage source in question. in series circuit = (6/5,228. Objective: Understand the basic parts of a circuit and how an electric current moves through it. 00 V. The black and In this experiment the circuit characteristics of resistors when connected in series, Before you begin your lab, read the color codes of the three resistors and your measurements from table 1 and the formula: R = V/I. Electric Circuits: Series Circuit: Only one path for current VT = V1 + V2 + V3 IT = I1 =I2 = I3 RT = R1+R2+R3 You have 2 resistors in series. Department of Physics 8. light bulb. Click on the multimeters to read the voltage or the current. 3. Read on to know the key preparation tips to excel in your CBSE Class 12 Physics Practical exams. Lab 2: DC Circuits I. Physics chapter 20 study guide static electricity answers. Posted on To analyze resistors in a series circuit, we found an equivalent resistance. Teams 1 and 2 assemble the slides shown above and use identical blocks 1 and 2, respectively. Physics chapter 20 study guide static electricity answers Click here to download the individual chapters Handouts Agendas Pre Lab Format Physics Reading Logs Vocab Sheet PDF Chapter 1 Reflection Reflection Study Guide 2013 *Reflection Chapter 5 Static electricity Notes 2012 Answer Key Physics 2 lab ni nga problem experiment no. You have already obesrved some trends in how With simple parallel circuits, all components are connected between the same two sets of electrically common points, creating multiple paths for the current to After completing this lab, you will be able to explain what electric current is, and how it is affected by resistors in a circuit. In this lab, you will need your SERIES and PARALLEL circuit templates, or re draw them later in the lesson. • know the difference between a closed circuit and an open circuit. Download RC Circuits. However, in actual practice Chapter 3: Capacitors, Inductors, and Complex Impedance  20  A Simple RC Circuit We will start by looking in detail at the simplest capacitive circuit, which is shown in figure 3. Your last name. A DC circuit is necessary for DC electricity to exist. Purpose. This test will cover circuits, magnetism and imaging. AP Physics Lab – Capacitors and RC Circuits. edu Spokane Falls Community College (509) 533 3837 Physics 102 RC Circuit Lab – Answers to Related rc circuits course: phy156 section: 12919 student name: gamoi paisley lab partner: sarahi marquez, emmanuela tanis date: 10/24/2017 objective: to examine lab report for experiment 18 rc circuits shivam agarwal lab partner: anton draayer ta: kunpeng mu june 14, 2016 introduction: this experiment had three. 6) = 0. Ohm's law. Comparing Voltage Drops and Currents in Parallel Lab. Construct the circuit shown in Figure 1 and measure I1, I2, I3 and Vo. This short lab can be performed as in introduction to electricity or as an introduction to circuits after beginning electricity. Sample Lab Report  PHYS 231 The following is an example of a wellwritten report that might be submitted by a PHYS 231 student. Procedure PhET Circuit Simulation Lab: As stated earlier that PhET lab was originally founded as physics education teaching lab so it covers a lot of physics fields starting from simple mechanics including Sound, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism & Circuits to the most complicated Quantum and Radiations. It allows you to build circuits with resistors, light bulbs, batteries, and switches and take measurements with laboratory equipment like the realistic ammeter and voltmeter. Construct the circuit as in Figure 4 using the three resistors aligned parallel to each other. – Circuit diagrams and sketches of scope traces are invaluable. Finally, calculate the individual currents and voltages for each resistor. Fig. The lab report must include the following: 1. And from this operation, we should be able to measure the experimental time constant of the circuit built and then compare it to the theoretical value while varying the capacitors and resistors. When we call a circuit a "closed circuit" we mean A. This is your chance to test just how well you are doing. For this lab you will be looking at the connections between voltage, current and resistance in a simple electrical circuit. Guiding Question: Can you describe the configuration of a working circuit? Context of Lesson. Objectives To construct and analyze the behavior of four circuits: a simple switch circuit, a simple rheostat (variable resistance) circuit, Circuit Worksheet Answers side 1 For each of the given circuits, calculate the equivalent resistance. When two light bulbs are connected in series, which is true? A. Publisher: University of Colorado, Department of Physics Simple Circuit Lab. Question: PHYSIC LAB 5 SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS Please Help Me To Correct My Lab Report And Write The Conclusion !!! Abstract: In This Experiment, We Could Learn The Difference Between Resistors In Series And Parallel. Draw a circuit schematic (diagram) to include a 50. Click on the resistor or battery pack to generate new random voltages or resistances. 26 TESTUNIT 14 ***IB ONLY Test Prep Saturday 4/2 8; 8:0012:00: 29 IB Physics Exam Preparation Mini AP Review Session After School Physics 2 lab ni nga problem experiment no. DC circuits may be in series, parallel or a combination. There is also a version of the Electrical Circuit Lab in which data can be collected. THE LIGHT BULB EXPERIMENT: Exploring Simple Electric Circuits Preparatory Questions for Review: (also read this guide sheet, which contains some of the answers!) 1. The at term in the equation represents the change in velocity that occurs because the object is accelerating. Section 35. Electrical Quantity Description Unit Water Analogy Voltage or Potential Difference A measure of the energy difference per unit charge between two points in a circuit. Hold the magnet motionless outside the coil for a few seconds. 0 A Electric Circuits: Series Circuit: Only one path for current VT = V1 + V2 + V3 IT = I1 =I2 = I3 RT = R1+R2+R3 You have 2 resistors in series. 66 ohms. Electric Load Centers Electric load centers form the link between the utility company and the circuits in a building. Thank you for your help in advance. Appendix B Computers and Software Appendix C Equipment: DMM. Atkinson Southern Illinois University, Carbondale Physics Department Updated by Dr. ELECTRIC CIRCUITS LABORATORY MANUAL. Your email. Introduction. Questions for “Electric Current Driven A. Fundamentals of Electricity; Resistors and Resistance; Ohm's Law; Series Circuits; Parallel Circuits; Combination Circuits; Current Control operation of electrical circuits. the properties of any circuit containing resistors in series or parallel or any combination of the two. Each circuit PHYSICS 111 LABORATORY Experiment #3 Current, Voltage and Resistance in Series and Parallel Circuits This experiment is designed to investigate the relationship between current and potential in simple series and parallel resistor circuits using ideas of conservation of energy and conservation of charge. ” It consisted of a metal chain to conduct charge to a sheet of metal on the inside bottom of the jar, with the outside bottom surrounded by a second sheet of metal. LABORATORY V. Consider that the capacitor is initially fully charged to 3. docx Laboratory Experiment #2, The Series Circuit Patrick Hoppe, 02/17/02 The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the relationship between voltage, resistance, and current as described by Ohm’s law. (As we shall see, a purely resistive circuit corresponds to infinite 1 Circuit Lab Free Response Directions: You will be given 40 minutes to complete the following written portion of the Circuit Lab exam. The first time you measure the timeconstant, we want you to use both methods of determining the time constant described below. 113 and Fig. Pliers should be used to insert resistors and jumper wires into the breadboard. 3 volts, so small voltages should be used to avoid burning out too many bulbs. Calculate your answer. Objective. Simply click on the word "answers" at the end of each question. There is an ammeter, voltmeter, wattmeter and an ohmmeter. Draw on the circuit diagram, above right, the placement of the voltmeter and current meter. Ok so i need some help with a few labs. Analog & digital circuit simulations in seconds. The solutions contain . Handson equipment, such as capacitors, resistors, pendulums, and lasers, are high quality. If an object is not accelerating, it will maintain its original speed, v 0. Apparatus: Slide wire Wheatstone Bridge, decade res istance box, unknown resistors, galvanometer and a battery or power supply. 5 In today's lab power supply used in this lab is shown in Fig. Enter your email address Your first name. 21 with V1 = 5V, using the assumption V f = 0. • construct simple to more complicated series and parallel circuits • explain the difference between a series and parallel circuit. 4. We examine how to find the total voltage, current, and resistance of a series circuit and learn how to find these Check out our essay example on Physics lab report of Circuits to start writing! Jul 13, 1999 Finding the current in all branches of a multiloop circuit (or the emf of a battery The standard method in physics, which is the one followed by the . Introduction to Ohm’s Law and electric circuits, and answer the Pre Hand in your answers as you enter the general physics lab. We are on a mission to inspire the next generation to get creative with electronics, and we created this kit as a way to give kids everywhere (far beyond the reach of our afterschool and summer programs) access to essential skills of the future. These give rise to the frequency dependence of the circuit, with important “resonance” features that are the basis of many applications, such as radio tuners. Current at 6V. To explore the measurement of voltage & current in circuits 2. Two, 1. C. 7V, 5mA]. physics questions and answers This Is From A Physics Lab Report On Voltage And Current For Resistors In Series And Parallel. 5V Dcells will Physics 215  Experiment 11 Series and Parallel Circuits 44 + V  2 The third type of circuit you will construct is a ccombination circuit (Fig. Electric Current and Circuits Lab. There is only one path for current to flow through. – Attempt to explain what you see. Type your name, date, the day of the week you did the lab, and the name of the TA. The breadboard, power supplies and some other components are integrated into a box found at each lab station. 00115A. Procedure: Read the paragraphs covering “Electric Current”. If 8 V is supplied by the battery, what is the current in the circuit? How many volts are across the 100 ohm resistor? one circuit element (a resistor, an inductor or a capacitor) is connected to a sinusoidal voltage source. Title: Microsoft Word  Lab 7  RC Circuits. It will look like this to measure the voltage across the battery: When you measure the current from the battery, it will look like this: The second series circuit will have a 12 ω and a 24 ω resistor in it. We will experiment the use of diodes in limiting and rectifying circuits. 8 N from the magnetic field, what is the magnitude of the magnetic field? F ! ILB B ! " I F L "!! 40 T 5. Series and Parallel Resistive Circuits. calculate the following (I) the maximum charge on the capacitor, (ii) the time constant of the circuit (iii) the initial current if the internal resistance, r of the battery is 2. The batteries provide a potential difference or voltage. A physics student has an assignment to make an electrical heating system with the set of materials listed below: a. Regents Physics Parallel Resistor Calculation Answer: First, let's draw a picture of the situation. Physics lab report of Circuits Essay. Then Answers will vary. 14. Record the values of your resistor and capacitor in your data table, as well as any tolerance values marked on them. Batteries, Bulbs, Wire, and Circuits. 1 µF) 1 inductor (nominally 10 mH) Before you set up the RLC circuit, carefully measure the resistances ( R and R L), inductance, L, and capacitance, C. wire. Given Figures 1 to 4, draw a pictorial diagram of the circuit as it will appear on your protoboard (see lab notes). The purpose of the lab is to explore the properties of a parallel plate capacitor with and without a dielectric. When in position 1, the battery, resistor, and inductor are in series and a current is established. Given the circuit below… Calculate the equivalent resistance of the circuit. Wire up a complete circuit so that one battery is able to push electrons through the bulb. Answers are supplied. Resistors can be combined in simple circuit arrangements that increase or decrease the overall resistance in the circuit. A complete lab writeup includes a Title, a Purpose, a Data section, and a Conclusion/Discussion of Results. We will put Trusted Mac download Circuit Lab 3. Step 8: Connect the ammeter in series within different parts of the circuit, and note down the reading on the ammeter. Apr 16, 2015 To study the relationship between current and voltage in DC circuits. Table: Answers will vary. 1 Introduction. Resistor values: 146. Launch Logger Pro and open the MM Physics 904: Parallel Circuits Instructions Before viewing an episode, download and print the notetaking guides, worksheets, and lab data sheets for that episode, keeping the printed sheets in order by page number. Answer: FALSE The current in a branch resistor of a parallel circuit is inversely proportional to the resistance of the resistor. An electric circuit consists of a completer closed path (or paths) for electric current. modifications to your Circuit Construction Kit (DC Only), Virtual Lab A student in a physics lab mistakenly wired a light bulb, battery, and switch as shown in . No installation required! Launch it instantly with one click. record data, and all lab questions are reprinted with lines on which students can write their answers. Record in diagram above. 6 ohms. Physics chapter 20 study guide static electricity answers Click here to download the individual chapters Handouts Agendas Pre Lab Format Physics Reading Logs Vocab Sheet PDF Chapter 1 Reflection Reflection Study Guide 2013 *Reflection Chapter 5 Static electricity Notes 2012 Answer Key Start studying Science OlympiadCircuit Lab[Terms&Info]. Indicate what happens when you unscrew each bulb, one at a time. 2(b) shows the resistors in a parallel arrangement. Measure the voltage from the power supply with the multimeter. 3 In this lab, all Physics 215  Experiment 11 Series and Parallel Circuits 44 + V  2 The third type of circuit you will construct is a ccombination circuit (Fig. pdf) or the circuit and the resistance is the sum of individual resistors throughout the circuit. Advance Reading Urone, Chapter 20, sections 201 & 204. In this lab, you will be exploring the behavior of electrical components connected in circuits. You mis added. First, the generation, transmission, distribution, and consumption of electric energy occur under essentially sinusoidal steadystate conditions. Sokoloff, R. Sometimes all lab groups will work on the same problem, other times groups will work on different problems and share results. Since each lab group will turn in an electronic copy of the lab report, be sure to rename the lab report template file. PART B1 : Resistors in Series Procedure : 1. Physics; Circuit Lab  Div C Circuit Lab  Div C. 0 V battery, an ammeter, and a resistance of 10. As students refine and expand their understanding of physics, they apply their knowledge in experiments that require them to ask questions and create hypotheses. Did a lab this week testing current and voltage drop using 3 resists in series, parallel and combination. Experiment with an electronics kit! Build circuits with batteries, resistors, light bulbs, and switches. LAB: Series Circuits. 2 To be able to deal with some of the frequently used instruments and equipment; like the Margaret Wettergreen PHY 2049L 03/13/2014 Lab #8: RLC Resonance Purpose: The purpose of this lab was to study series resonance in an RLC circuit (composed of a resistor, inductor, and capacitor). 7V, find the resistor value you need to set the diode current to 5mA. Graph voltage as a function of location on the circuit assuming that Va = 0 V at the negative terminal of the battery. Get Circuit Lab alternative downloads. CBSE Physics Practical Class 12 Lab Manual Physics Practical Class 12 – Find out more about the CBSE physics practical class 12 syllabus and the other experiments that you need to focus on. Professional schematic PDFs, wiring diagrams, and plots. Equation (2 pts) Answer (3 pts) Jan 24, 2013 equivalent resistance of circuits in your physics textbook. Determine if everyday objects are conductors or insulators, and take measurements with an ammeter and voltmeter. To identify a diode, an LED, a transistor, an IC, a resistor and a capacitor from a mixed collection of such items. 11. PHY 161 PHYSICS LABORATORY MANUAL. Lab V  16. The switch is open at t = 0. ga3 Chapter 35 Electric Circuits. Series and Parallel Circuits Physics with Computers before, close it for several seconds, and then open it. This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Lab 2 Batteries, Bulbs, and Current L23. Physics Skills Lab #1 Physics and Measurement . 50cm length of wire carries a 2. Use PSpice to determine I1, I2, I3, and Vo in Figure 1 at f = 1kHz and f = 10kHz. 2(a) illustrates two resistors connected in series and Fig. • D cell battery • 3 bulbs (#14) and holders • push (contact) switch • knife switch • 10 wires with alligator clips • battery holder The current probe is a device that measures current and displays it as a function of time on the computer screen. Now we will do the same for the parallel circuit: P = (V^2)/R < Since the resistors are in parallel the voltage drop is equal to the source voltage. Circuit elements can be arranged in any geometry desired; they are not required to connect to a grid. Kirchhoff's Rules. 1 Purely Resistive load Consider a purely resistive circuit with a resistor connected to an AC generator, as shown in Figure 12. Answer the questions for this data, and then repeat the measurement of the time constant for the other two circuits, as described on page E75. Physics 215  Experiment 11 Objective: The objective of this lab is to 114). Materials: battery. Lab: Simple Circuits AP Physics Part B. Hi everyone, I am a physics student, Bhairab Kr. Sign up to access the rest of the document. In a series RLC circuit it can be helpful to find the circuit's equivalent resistance, known as the impedance. From the graph of this data, the resistance is determined for Ohmic Physics 101 Lab Manual Dr. Lab Report/PHYS 224 RC Circuits Name_ _____ Lab section_____ __ Objective In this lab, you will study the RC circuit and measure the time constant sfor basic RC circuit . Circuit Construction Kit: DC  PhET Interactive Simulations Description. In this lab, you will study the RC circuit and measure the time constant sfor basic RC circuit . 7 10 13 kg m/s2 d. Here is the access Download Page of CIRCUITS PHET LAB ANSWER KEY PDF, click this link to download or read online : CIRCUITS PHET LAB ANSWER KEY PDF Best Answer: A maximum current occurs when capacitor is fully discharged and acts as a short circuit therefore keeping the same R will keep the maximum current the same. Introduction to Ohm’s Law and electric circuits, and answer the PreLab questions on the last page of this handout. that your circuit exactly matches the drawing for it. In a space below draw a diagram showing all the elements connected in one electrical circuit that can provide the maximum rate of heat produced. The theoretical functions for voltage and current versus time will be verified, as will the defining relation between capacitance, charge, and voltage. The sum of all the currents flowing into a node must be zero since charge Ohm’s Law Lab Report [With Graph, Observations and Verification] According to the statement: The current flowing through a constant resistor is directly proportional to the voltage applied to its ends. In this experiment, you will construct circuits using multiple resistors. Introduction (15 points): The introduction should include a general overview of the ex Description. Before you come to lab A. in parallel circuit = (6/125. labs that deal with electric circuits), and Physics 222 Ohm's Law Lab Report  Free download as PDF File (. N amp: CircuitsCirc Base your answers to questions 46 and 47 on the circuit For this lab you will be looking at the connections between voltage, current and resistance in a simple electrical circuit. Exercises – Include a clear and concise description of what you did. modifications to your Circuit Construction Kit (DC Only), Virtual Lab Each lab group should download the Lab Report Template and fill in the relevant information as you perform the experiment. A "series" circuit has only one path for the electricity to follow. To construct some simple electrical circuits which illustrate the concepts of current, potential, and Excel programs are available to prepare your lab reports on these computers. edu. Be sure that parts with positive or negative markings are positioned as shown in the drawings. 0. The first equation is the current law, eq. You can collect your data in a table like this one. 02 Spring 2006 Experiment 6: Ohm’s Law, RC and RL Circuits OBJECTIVES 1. The resistance values should be indicated on the diagram. (1. Circuits can be viewed as lifelike images or as schematic symbols. Voltage from power supply: 6V We measured total current through each circuit type and voltage. A stopwatch was started when the switch was thrown to start the charge/discharge, and the DMM read at known times until the voltage essentially stopped changing. Each laboratory consists of a series of related problems that can be solved using the same basic concepts and principles. PHYSICS 1040L LAB WHEATSTONE BRIDGE SERIES & PARALLEL RESISTANCES. PROBLEM #6: SIMPLE CIRCUITS WITH CAPACITORS. One is 100 ohms and the other is 300 ohms. If the wire experiences a force of 3. laboratory do pose minor safety risks (e. Combinations of Resistors. Answer the questions at the end of this writeup and be prepared to turn them in at the beginning of lab. Read Online Now circuits phet lab answer key Ebook PDF at our Library. session ready to ask (and answer!) questions about the material. These rules are given below. Circuit Lab is a laboratory event which deals with the various components and properties of direct current (DC) circuits. The purpose of this lab is to experiment with building an RC circuit using a breadboard, capacitors, resistors, a light bulb, and a battery supply. Lab V 1. The calculated equivalent resistances for the series circuits will abide by the equation R eq = R 1 + R 2 and for the parallel circuits the value will be similar to 1/R eq = 1/R 1 + 1/R 2. What about a parallel circuit? Students use lightbulbs and alligatorclipped wires to build simple series and parallel circuits and study their characteristics. Physics 42 Lab: Capacitance and Dielectrics. 048A. Current, Voltage and Resistance in Series and Parallel Circuits. Determine the resistance of common objects in the “Grab Bag. One goal of this experiment is to study circuits made up of two resistors in series or parallel. Chiu 2 1. Chapter 26, sections 1, 2, 4 B. Thornton PHYS 2419, Fall 2011 3. +. – Make tables clear and neat. Chapter 2: Motion in One Dimension. Procedure and Analysis: 1. GSC2312: Electronics Fundamentals Student Lab Manual Answer Key Product Features Students will gain a firm understanding of the following subject matter as a result of taking the Electronics Fundamentals Course. The negative terminal loses negative charge and eventually becomes positive. Series Circuits Lab . A 4. Note: In the ____Use a parallel circuit equation from your reference table to find I1 . Mr. The circuits can be powered by a AC/DC power supply or batteries. Calculate and measure all values for the circuit in Figure 1 and indicate them in Table 1. battery clip. Get Your Custom Essay on Physics lab report of Circuits Just from $13,9/Page Get Essay A device known as the multimeter is used to find the voltage and current in the circuit. As illustrated above, hold the bar magnet outside the coil and begin graphing the voltage across the coil. CBSE Class 12 Physics Lab Manual. To use a multimeter to (a) identify base of transistor, (b) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors, (c) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED, A circuit breaker in series before the parallel branches can prevent overloads by automatically opening the circuit. Customize your physics course with a lab on mapping magnetic fields or creating an electric motor. Score: /30. View the circuit as a schematic diagram, or switch to a lifelike view. 1 A Battery and a Bulb. Question: This Is From A Physics Lab Report On Voltage And Current For Resistors In Series And Parallel. circuit is directly proportional to the voltage, V, across the circuit and inversely proportional to the resistance, R, of the circuit: I = V R (15. Objective: The objective of this lab is to study resistances connected in series, parallel, and combination circuits. For the next two circuits, you can use the A physics class is asked to design a lowfriction slide that will launch a block horizontally from the top of a lab table. series with the 330µF capacitor. D = v 0 t + (1/2)at 2 = +4(4) + (1/2)(1)(4) 2 = 16 + 8 = 24 meters to the right. Build and simulate circuits right in your browser. When all the devices are connected using series connections, the circuit is referred to Solve the problem; then click on the Submit button to check your answer. The objective of this lab is to study circuits with resistors connected in series, parallel, and combination. some i've tried out and a few i just cant get. By observing the brightness of the lightbulbs, students will learn that the amount of electric current flowing through the lightbulbs varies with the different circuit configurations. Advanced answer: the proper way to express the derivative of each of these plots is [dv/di]. Electrical devices are the . Procedure O) the same three rusistors that you used in Experiments 3 and 4 into the series circuit shown Measuring Current in Resistor Circuits EQUIPMENT NEEDED: — AC/DC Electronics Lab Board: Resistors, 100 ohms(3) and Wire Leads — Dcell Battery Lab Notes. Equations: QUESTIONS: 1. Set up each circuit and then measure the current and volage across each resistor. The current flow is expected to be uniform throughout the series circuits, but will be stronger through the smaller resistor in the parallel circuits. what i want to know is whether the limitations and sources of errors that i wrote down for each of these labs are correct or not and what i could have said instead. OPTICS AND WAVE PHENOMENA (such as wave properties, superposition, interference, diffraction, geometrical optics, polarization, Doppler effect) 20% 18% 9% that your circuit exactly matches the drawing for it. Before beginning a new lab, carefully read the entire assigned lab and all suggested readings. The BuildItAll Starter Kit is Circuit Lab's athome learning kit based on our tried and tested electronics curriculum. Enter your answers in Online Physics 1, Physics 2 & Physics C Prep courses for high school and You will be using a virtual lab environment, so there is no danger to yourself please work out the answers (find the currents) in the circuit problems you find below. Design with our easytouse schematic editor. Lab IV Same group of four students as in Lab III Each person will have a new task. Current direction is defined as the direction positive charges will flow (opposite to the electrons in the conductors). Once you have your answer, ask a member of the Physics Emasondosondo Åsa Bradley – Physics Instructor asab@spokanefalls. Theseconddiscovery,inLeiden,ledtotheearliestcommonlyusedcapacitor,known thereafter as the “Leyden jar. This website and its content is subject to our Terms and Conditions. For student safety, all appropriate safety symbols and caution statements have been reproduced on these pages. C9. An RC circuit is made by simply putting a resistor and a capacitor together as a voltage divider. Kaitlyn Greiner Formal Lab Report: Title of Experiment: Simple dc Circuits Date Performed: July 16th, 2014 Lab Partners: Erin Phlegar and Stephen Few Physics 1… Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Printer Friendly Version. You are advised to go through Lessons 1, 2 & 3 and do Exercises 1, 2 & 3 thoroughly before attempting this quiz. Procedure: 1. 1 H, and C = 10 nF, respectively. Science 14 Lab 3  DC Circuits Theory All DC circuit analysis (the determining of currents, voltages and resistances throughout a circuit) can be done with the use of three rules. This is the end of the preview. Discuss your group results with the teacher. Part 1 of the lab Setup the circuit as illustrated in Figure 1. For a related activity, You have done well to get to this point. circuit lab physics answers
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